Sunday, July 21, 2013

How to speak Esperanto

Welcome, everyone! today, you'll learn the basics of esperanto, the easiest language ever.
if you don't know what esperanto is, then check this post before reading the tutorial.

Esperanto follows a simple set of rules, to which it has no exceptions, and its vocabulary comes from the most spoken european languages (though it does borrow some things from japanese and chinese, it doesn't really represent them that well).

The first thing you have to know is that each type of word ends always with the same letter:
-Nouns (e.g., "apple") end with an "-o" (e.g., pomo)
-Adjectives (eg., "beautiful") end with an "-a" (e.g., bela)
-Verbs (e.g., "live") end with an "-i" in their infinitives (e.g., vivi) and have only three tenses, past, present and future, which are made by adding "is", "as" and "os" respectively (so "mi vivis, mi vivas, mi vivos" are "I lived, I live, I'll live, respectively). There are no irregular verbs.
-Adverbs (e.g., amazingly) end with an "-e" and derive from nouns or adjectives (e.g., "bele" = "beautifully")


Each letter is read with only one sound: Most consonants are pronounced the same as in english, but vowels change quite a bit, and there is the addition of circumflexed consonants, which have sounds present in the english language, but are represented in a different way. Thus:

"a" sounds like "spa"
"e" sounds like "pet"
"i" sounds like "meet"
"o" sounds like "war"
"u" sounds like "cool"

"ĉ" sounds like "champion"

"ŝ" sounds like "shower"
"
ĝ" sounds like "orange"

"c" sounds like "cats" (always)
"g" sounds like "grape"
"ĵ" sounds like "jape"
"j" sounds like "you"
circumflexed letters are typed with an "x" when you dont have the key to make them, so for instance 
"gx" = "ĝ"

All personal pronouns end with an "i":


Mi                              Ni                                                    I                        We

        Vi                       Vi                                                  You                     You
Li / Sxi / Gxi                Ili                                            He / She / It              They
      (ŝi)      (ĝi)

And to make them objective you just add an "n" to them (e.g., min = me)


So, a simple sentece could be "Mi estas bela" = "I am beautiful"  ("esti" is the verb "to be").

When a word is in plural, though, you add a "j" at the end of it.
"Ni estas belaj" = "We are beautiful" (belaj as in "bay-lie")
Nouns in plural are added a "j" too, just as in english one adds an "s", so "kato" = "cat", "katoj" = "cats" (see how "kato sounds like "cat", by the way?)
Finally, nouns and adjectives both go in plural or not, so they are said to "agree" on plurals, something in which english "disagrees": "Ruĝaj Pomoj" = "red apples"

So ends today's lesson, and I would recommend you to now visit "www.lernu.net" to learn some vocabulary, or get into contact with some "esperantistoj".

I hope you've enjoyed the post, and you can always suggest me some topic to speak about.

3 comments:

  1. The main advantage to learning Esperanto is appreciated only by failed students of other languages. That is to say, there is NO WALL to hit. This is the point where one has to memorize an ENDLESS list of irregularities, special cases, exceptions to rules and just plain absurdities. In Esperanto these are absent.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. That's what I meant when I said it's a "logic language"

      Delete
  2. Gracias!!! Hoy aprendi a hablar esperanto

    ReplyDelete

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